# Roman Numerals

Roman numerals were used in ancient Rome and throughout Europe until the start of the Middle ages. The number system uses combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet with rules for adding and subtracting values depending on the relative position of the letters. Roman numerals began to be replaced by Arabic numerals in the 14th century for accounting and arithmetic calculations, but they are still used today for some artistic applications.

Great Seal of the U.S.

Roman civilization and the Roman Empire had a strong government that held a large territory around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia. As conquerors, the Romans spread their culture, language and Roman numbers throughout their domain. The Romance Languages, including Spanish, Italian, Catalan, Portuguese, French and Romanian, are derived from the Vulgar Latin spoken by the Romans, which originated from Classical Latin. Spanish is the most widely spoken Romance language in the world and it is second only to Chinese in the number of native speakers.

Roman numbers are based on seven Latin letters with the following values: I=1, V=5, X=10, L=50, C=100, D=500 and M=1000. Numbers that are not represented exactly by the seven Latin letters are coded by repeating the letters and by placing one letter of lower value to the left of one of higher value, or up to three letters of lower value to the right of one of higher value. The smaller values to the left are subtracted, and the smaller values to the right are added. Thus XIII represents 13 (10+3), wheras IX represents 9 (10-1). The Roman numeral MDCCLXXVI at the bottom of the pyramid in the Great Seal of the United States represents 1776 (1000+500+100+100+50+10+10+5+1). Roman numbers that are multiples of 1000 are indicated with a line above the number. For example, V represents five thousand.

## Roman Numerals with their Latin names

 Arabic Number Roman Number Cardinal Form Ordinal Form 1 I unus - una - unum primus 2 II duo - duae - duo secundas 3 III tres - tria tertius 4 IV quattuor quartus 5 V quinque quintus 6 VI sex sextus 7 VII septem septimus 8 VIII octo octavus 9 IX novem nonus 10 X decum decimus 11 XI undecim undecimus 12 XII duodecim duodecimus 13 XIII tredecim tertius decimus 14 XIV quattourdecim quartus decimus 15 XV quindecim quintus decimus 16 XVI sedecim sextus decimus 17 XVII septendecim septimus decimus 18 XVIII duodeviginti duodevicesimus 19 XIX undeviginti undevicesimus 20 XX viginti vicesimus 21 XXI viginti unus vicesimus primus 22 XXII viginti duo vicesimus secundas 23 XXIII viginti tria vicesimus tertius 24 XXIV viginti quattuor vicesimus quartus 25 XXV viginti quinque vicesimus quintus 30 XXX triginta tricesimus 40 XL quadraginta quadragesimus 50 L quinquaginta quinquagesimus 60 LX sexaginta sexagesimus 70 LXX septuaginta septuagesimus 80 LXXX octoginta octogesimus 90 XC nonaginta nonagesimus 100 C centum centesimus 200 CC ducenti ducentesimus 300 CCC trecenti trecentesimus 400 CD quadringenti quadringentesimus 500 D quingenti quingentesimus 600 DC sescengenti sescentesimus 700 DCC septingenti septingentesimus 800 DCCC octingenti octingentesimus 900 CM nongenti nongentesimus 1000 M mille millesimus 1900 MCM mille nongenti millesnongentesimus 2000 MM duomilia bismillesimus 2100 MMC duomilia centum bismilles centesimus 3000 MMM tresmilia tresmillesimus 4000 MMMM quadramilia quadramillesimus 5000 V quinmilia quinmillesimus 6000 VM sesmilia sesmillesimus 7000 VMM septuamilia septuamillesimus 8000 VMMM octomilia octomillesimus 9000 MX nonamilia nonamillesimus 10,000 X decem milia decies millesimus 11,000 XM undecim milia undecim millesimus 12,000 XMM duodecim milia duadecim millesimus 50,000 L quinqua milia quinqua millesimus 60,000 LX sexa milia sexa millesimus 80,000 LXXX octo milia octo millesimus 90,099 XCXCIX nona milis novaginta novem nona millesimus nonus 100,000 C centum milia centies millesimus 200,000 CC ducenta milia ducenta millesimus 200,100 CCC ducenta milia centum ducenta millesimus centum 200,510 CCDX ducenta milia quindecem quindecem 500,000 D quingenti milia quingenti millesimus 600,000 DC sescenti milia sescenti millesimus 700,000 DCC sepusducenta milia sepcenti millesimus 1,000,000 M mille milia mille millesimus