Category Archives: health

Marijuana reduces Intelligence Quotient in adolescents

The opium poppy and marijuana have been used for millennia in traditional medicines for the relief of pain and serious illnesses. However, their potential for addiction and the social problems that they cause has led to government regulations that make the possession of these herbal products illegal.  Morphine, which is generally 8 to 14 percent of the dry weight of opium, is a powerful analgesic that is used in modern hospitals to control pain for dying patients and for patients with serious injuries.

Marijuana, a variety of hemp plant, has had a more difficult transition into the modern medicine chest because it is often abused as a recreational drug.  The active components of marijuana are called cannabinoids.  Hashish is produced from Cannabis indica plants that are traditionally cultivated in India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan.  Cannabidiol (CBD) is a main psychoactive component of hashish.  Marijuana is produced from Cannabis sativa and its main active component is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).


Medical cannabis has been documented as an effective treatment for nausea, vomiting, neurogenic pain, glaucoma, and many other conditions.  Cannabidiol has also been found effective at stopping breast cancer from spreading throughout the body.  Several states, like Colorado and Washington, have legalized the purchase and possession of marijuana, but it is still banned under the federal Controlled Substances Act.

Approximately 1100 metric tons of marijuana are smuggled each year from Mexico to supply the recreational drug market, and large quantities are also grown within the United States.  Young people often believe that regular marijuana use is not harmful, and many high school age students use cannabis on a daily basis.  A study at Duke University[1] followed 1037 individuals from age 13, before initiation of cannabis use, to age 38.  Neurophsychological testing found that persistent cannabis use was associated with a broad decline in cognitive function.  Impairment was concentrated among adolescent-onset cannabis users, with more persistent use associated with greater decline. The changes were permanent.  Cessation of cannabis use did not fully restore neuropsychological functioning among adolescent-onset cannabis users.

Learn more about drug addiction

[1] Madeline H. Meier, et al., Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife, PNAS, October 2, 2012, (109) 40, E2657–E2664, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1206820109


Right arm hurts when coughing

I was recovering from the flu and the only remaining symptom was a stuffy and runny nose.  I thought that I was already on my way to recovery when I became aware of a combination of a dull pain and numbness in my right arm.  When I coughed, I could feel a shooting pain in my arm.  Over the next two days, the pain got worse and I could not find a comfortable position to sleep without feeling the pain in my arm.

I am not one to run to the doctor for every little pain.  With experience, I have learned that doctors will drug you so that you don’t feel the pain, but the real diagnosis could take a long time after many visits and tests.  For something that is not life-threatening, my first instinct is to search the Internet to find out what the problem could be.

My search found that the problem might be a herniated disk, a blood clot, lung cancer or other equally serious conditions.  Since my pain had just started recently, and I did not have any pain in my neck or neck movement, it was unlikely to be a problem related to the spine.  My arm was still strong but the muscle of my forearm felt a dull pain.  I decided to be though and wait at least one more day before going to the doctor.

I spent another night trying to find a comfortable position for sleeping.  At this time, I noticed that I had a muscular pain just below my right scapula.  I pressed my fingers on the spot and felt some tenderness.  Aha!  I suddenly remembered what I had done the day before the pain started.  I had helped my wife weigh her luggage on a bathroom scale.  Since the scale was not big enough to hold the luggage, I weighed myself holding the luggage and then subtracted my weight.  I remembered straining while trying to balance my weight as I held the luggage.  I did not have a blood clot or cancer after all.  It was a simple strain.

I decided not to go to the doctor.  Many years before, while walking my dog, I had suddenly felt a back pain that had sent me to the emergency room.  The doctor gave me a pain killer that made me giddy and then asked me if I knew what was wrong with me.  I said, “No,” and he replied, “I don’t know either.  Back pains are very common and they generally go away after a week or two.”  On that occasion, I spent a week in bed and the back pain was most severe when I had to use the bathroom.

The back has many muscle fibers that extend from the spine to the hips, ribs and scapula.  During your lifetime, some of these muscle fibers will tear and give you great pain, although not necessarily right away.  Seek medical attention, but be aware that even modern doctors cannot heal your back; they can only numb the pain.  My advice is: Don’t lift heavy luggage!

Exercise regularly and in moderation


How To Get Ripped Abs

Most people would like to have a well toned body with ripped abs to show off at the beach. Unfortunately, our modern way of life is very sedentary and we eat too much, so we are generally overweight. We know that diet and exercise require perseverance and sacrifice. This is why when a TV advertisement offers a device that in 3 minutes can give the results of 100 sit-ups we are tempted to buy it even for $200 dollars or more, especially when the device is promoted by a good-looking fitness model like Jennifer Nicole Lee who lost over 70 pounds after bearing two children. The Ab Circle Pro is a fiberglass disk with handlebars and knee rests that can be used for doing pushups, swinging from side to side, and doing leg squeezes. The TV infomercials promoting the Ab Circle Pro ran more than 10,000 times between March 2009 and May 2010. One of the things that the TV commercials did no mention was that Jennifer Lee was already slim when she started promoting the exercise device.

Jennifer Nicole Lee and the Ab Circle Pro

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which is a consumer protection agency, charged the companies and individuals which promoted the Ab Circle Pro with making unsubstantiated claims that the device could cause rapid and substantial weight loss and that three minutes of exercise on the Ab Circle Pro was equal to 100 sit-ups. The FTC filed a civil lawsuit against four companies promoting the device: Fitness Brands Inc., Fitness Brands International Inc., Direct Holdings Americas Inc. and Direct Entertainment Media Group Inc.

The FTC proved that it was deceptive to promise that people could lose 10 pounds in two weeks by using the abdominal exercise device for only three minutes a day. In the settlements, the companies agreed to pay as much as $25 million in refunds to customers for deceptive advertising. Michael Casey and David Brodess, two executives who control the companies, agreed to pay a total $1.2 million. Under terms of the settlements, none of the defendants admitted wrongdoing.

The FTC warned marketers to refrain from promising magic solutions to health problems, and advised consumers to carefully evaluate advertising claims for weight-loss products because weight loss requires hard work.

If you bought the Ab Circle Pro and got ripped off instead of getting ripped abs, you can try to get your money refunded by applying through the Federal Trade Commission web site:
FTC Ab Circle Pro Refunds

Learn More About Exercise

Did Cleopatra bathe in milk?

At last, healthy feet

It has been widely reported, although not confirmed, that Cleopatra bathed in milk. The practice may seem eccentric and somewhat bizarre, but close analysis indicates that bathing in milk or washing the skin with milk has some merits.

At room temperature, milk is fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. Such bacteria are commonly found in yogurt. Lactic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid with the chemical formula CH3CH(OH)COOH. Alpha-hydroxy acids (AHA) are used extensively in the cosmetics industry in products claiming to reduce wrinkles, fade age spots and improve the overall look and feel of the skin. They are also used by dermatologists in chemical peels, and by beauty spas and home kits in lower concentrations. The effectiveness of alpha-hydroxy acids for improving the skin is well documented, although there are many cosmetic products with exaggerated claims. It is quite reasonable to expect that washing the skin with milk could promote the growth of lactobacilli bacteria that would help to remove dead skin cells by the action of the acid generated. In addition, the butterfat in milk would act as a moisturizer to prevent the skin from becoming dry.

Recent studies have revealed that many microbes inhabit the skin and mucosa of the digestive system of healthy humans. It is estimated that there are at least ten times as many bacteria as human cells in the body and that these bacteria are beneficial by preventing the growth of pathogenic organisms.[1] In view of this, we should question whether the use of antibacterial soaps is useful or harmful. Killing the beneficial bacteria on our skin could leave us vulnerable to infections by fungi and disease-causing bacteria.

I recently read Mycophilia: Revelations from the Weird World of Mushrooms by Eugenia Bone. This book describes the life cycle of fungi and the lengths to which people go to find edible wild mushrooms. The book points out the pervasiveness of fungi throughout nature, the fungal infections that afflict humans, and the intricate and delicate balance of conditions required to culture mushrooms.

I decided to integrate some of the ideas of the human microbiome and the knowledge that I had gained from reading this book to fight a minor, but persistent athlete’s foot infection that I had had since my early twenties. For more than 40 years, I had used antifungal powders and creams to keep the infection in check, but nevertheless, I still had scaly feet and rough heels.

My new treatment consisted of scrubbing the feet with a lava stone to remove dead skin while showering. After the shower, I rubbed about one tablespoon of hydrogen peroxide to each foot so that the bubbling action of the hydrogen peroxide could loosen flaky skin. While the feet dried, I mixed one teaspoon of plain yogurt with a quarter cup of milk and stirred. Once the feet were dry, I applied the milk inoculated with yogurt to my feet making sure to rub the feet thoroughly, including between the toes. I allowed the milk to air dry, and applied a little bit of coconut oil to the feet as a moisturizer. My feet looked healthy with no sign of fungus infection after two weeks of this daily treatment, as shown in the picture above.

I feel that this experiment, although not scientifically rigorous, demonstrates that the milk-yogurt mixture changed the environment of my feet to promote the growth of bacteria that inhibited the persistent fungus. Looking at Cleopatra’s milk baths from this perspective makes a lot more sense now.

[1] Human microbiome, Wikipedia

Vitamins are harmful in large doses

Vitamins are necessary for a healthy life.  A proper diet can supply all the vitamins that our body needs, but vitamin deficiencies can result from diets that do not include a variety of vegetable and animal products.  People who don’t eat animal products for philosophical reasons (vegans) need to take Vitamin B12 supplements to avoid deficiencies that can cause anemia or nervous system damage.

The sale of vitamins in the United States is a multi-million dollar industry.  If you turn on the television at dinner time, you are likely to see many advertisements for vitamin pills and dietary supplements.  Many people self-medicate without consulting a dietitian or nutritionist and try to compensate for their bad diets by taking daily doses of vitamin and mineral supplements.  Also, many doctors find it easier to recommend vitamin pills, rather than educate their patients about nutrition.

Experimentation with large doses of vitamins was proposed by Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling, who claimed that gram quantities of Vitamin C could prevent colds and cure cancer.  Further scientific studies found that Vitamin C was not effective for colds or cancer.  There is a lot of popular appeal for the idea that if a little is good, more must be better.  But this is not so.  A healthy body can only be maintained through moderation.

In the 1950s, Denham Harman proposed the idea that damage from free radicals on the cells caused aging.  Free radicals are highly reactive unstable groups of atoms that can be neutralized with antioxidants.  Since Vitamin E is an antioxidant, many people started to take the vitamin in doses as high as 2000 IU per day, when the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) is only 22.4 IU.  However, large doses have been found to increase the risk of cancer, rather than reduce aging.  Researchers at the National Cancer Institute found that men who took a high daily dose of vitamin E (400 IU per day) had a 17 percent greater risk of developing prostate cancer.  The trial included 35,533 men in the U.S., Canada, and Puerto Rico who were monitored for 7 to 12 years.[1,2]

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is found in carrots, green leafy vegetables and liver.  Vitamin A toxicity develops after taking too much vitamin A for long periods. Excessive vitamin A intake is associated with increased risk of fracture.  Some of the symptoms of hypervitaminosis A are blurred vision, bone pain or swelling, and abnormal softening of the skull in children.[3]

What vitamins or minerals should you supplement?  Start by using a free web application for tracking your nutrition such as CRON-O-Meter. Enter the foods and the amounts that you eat in a typical week.  When you have data for one week, you can determine the deficiencies in your diet, and only then can you decide what supplements to take.  Most people find that they only need to supplement magnesium.  Calcium may also be necessary for those who don’t consume dairy products regularly.  A detailed analysis of the foods that you eat can lead you to make more nutritious choices.

Chemical Structure of Vitamins and Minerals

[1] Klein EA, et al., Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), JAMA. 2011 Oct 12;306(14):1549-56. PMID: 21990298

[2] Lippman SM, et al., Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), JAMA. 2009 Jan 7;301(1):39-51. Epub 2008 Dec 9. PMID: 19066370

[3] Zile M. Vitamin A deficiencies and excess. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 45.

The Circulatory System

The main structures of the cardiovascular system are the heart, arteries, capillaries and veins. The function of the heart is to pump blood through the arteries to the organs of the body. The arteries branch out into a network of capillaries that carry blood with nutrients to the cells and remove their waste products. The capillaries merge to form the veins that circulate the blood back to the heart.

The pulmonary artery carries blood from the heart to the lungs. The function of the lungs is to exchange gases. The carbon dioxide produced from carbohydrate and fat metabolism is carried in the bloodstream to the lungs where it is released to the atmosphere, and oxygen from the air is absorbed and stored in the hemoglobin of the red blood cells.

The aorta, which is the largest artery in the body, branches from the heart into the mesenteric and renal arteries that carry blood to the intestines and the kidneys, respectively. The blood in the capillaries of the intestines absorbs carbohydrates, proteins, and fats from the foods processed by the digestive system. Blood from the intestines goes to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. The liver removes toxins from the blood. In the liver, the ammonia produced from protein metabolism is combined with carbon dioxide to create urea. The blood from the liver flows back to the heart via the hepatic vein and the inferior vena cava. The kidneys remove nitrogen waste products from the blood. Uric acid from nucleic acid metabolism and urea from protein metabolism are filtered out by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. Blood from the kidneys goes through the renal vein, then to the inferior vena cava, and finally recirculates back to the heart.

Cardiovascular diseases, such as arterial plaque and hardening of the arteries, may result in heart attacks and strokes that are some of the leading causes of death.  Proper diet and exercise can help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

Learn how to reduce risks of Cardiovascular Disease

Types of Cardiovascular Diseases


The word “cardiovascular” derives from the Greek root cardio (heart) and the Latin root vascular (vessel).  The word “cardiovascular” refers to the heart and all the blood vessels, including the arteries that carry blood from the heart, capillaries that distribute the blood throughout the body, and veins that return the blood to the heart.

The terms “heart disease” and “cardiovascular disease” are often used interchangeably. Heart disease refers to defects in the function of the heart or the coronary blood vessels that directly supply the heart.  Heart disease includes irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), racing heartbeat (tachycardia), heart infections, coronary artery disease, and congenital heart defects. Cardiovascular disease is most commonly associated with conditions involving blocked, narrowed or stiffened blood vessels that can lead to chest pain (angina), heart attack, or stroke. Cardiovascular disease reduces the blood flow to the heart, brain or other parts of the body and may cause symptoms such as numbness, pain, weakness or coldness in the legs or arms.

The principal cause of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries. This condition develops when plaques of fatty substances build up in the inner walls of arteries. The buildup of plaques is slow, but grows over time. The plaques narrow the blood vessels and make the heart work harder causing high blood pressure (hypertension). When a plaque in a blood vessel ruptures, the blood forms a clot (thrombus) around the plaque material, and the clot may partially obstruct or completely stop blood flow in a blood vessel.  The tissues deprived of blood eventually die from lack of oxygen.

Coronary arteries are blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscles.  The blockage of a coronary artery (coronary thrombosis) causes a heart attack, also called a myocardial infarction.   An ischemic stroke occurs when the blood flow of an artery to the brain is blocked by a clot. The cells of the brain tissue die within a few minutes after a stroke and often result in paralysis and speech impediments. Aneurysms are bulges or weakened sections of the blood vessels that can occur anywhere in the body. The bursting of an aneurysm causes internal bleeding.  The rupture of a blood vessel inside the brain is called a hemorrhagic stroke.

Heart failure, peripheral artery disease and cardiac arrest are other common complications of heart disease. Heart failure occurs when the muscles of the heart weaken and the heart cannot pump enough blood. Peripheral artery disease is a condition where the legs or other limbs do not receive enough blood flow. Cardiac arrest is the sudden, unexpected loss of heart function usually caused by an electrical disturbance in the heart.

Learn more about the Circulatory System

Diet Tips for Weight Loss

Obesity and risk of death [1]

Heart disease and cancer are the two largest causes of death, and obesity is responsible for increasing the occurrence of these two diseases.  Eating less to achieve a normal weight may help to lengthen your life by avoiding these two diseases. The graphs above show that the risk of death increases in direct relation to the Body Mass Index (BMI), which is a measure of obesity.

The practice of eating less is often called Calorie Restriction (CR).  CR is the most effective nutritional intervention for slowing aging and preventing chronic disease in experimental animals.  In humans, CR with adequate nutrition protects against abdominal obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases.  Data obtained from individuals practicing long-term CR show a reduction of metabolic and hormonal factors associated with increased cancer risk.[2]

All you have to do is eat right.  Your diet should have all the necessary nutrients and just enough calories to balance your level of activity.  To lose weight, you need to eat less than what your body needs so that your body fat can be burned off.  Here are some tips that can help you lose extra pounds and maintain a normal weight.

  • Keep records of the food you eat to increase awareness of your eating habits.
  • Weigh yourself regularly, at least once a week, and adjust your diet accordingly.
  • Exercise regularly.  Increased physical activity helps to burn calories.
  • Eat on a regular schedule and avoid snacking between meals.
  • Sit down to eat and eat slowly.  It takes about 15 minutes for your brain to feel the effect of food.
  • Chew food thoroughly before swallowing.
  • Eat from a small plate and avoid second helpings.
  • Leave the table after eating to avoid the temptation of extra food.
  • Store food out of sight.
  • Don’t shop when you’re hungry.
  • Plan social events around something besides food.
  • Drink water or low calorie beverages.  Sweet drinks can undermine your diet.
  • Limit consumption of fats, sweets, and alcohol.  Reduce dessert portion sizes.
  • Increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes.

Use the diet calculator

[1] Adams KF. et al., Overweight, obesity, and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50 to 71 years old, N Engl J Med. 2006 Aug 24;355(8):763-78,  PMID: 16926275

[2] Omodei D, Fontana L., Calorie restriction and prevention of age-associated chronic disease,
FEBS Lett. 2011 Mar 11, PMID: 21402069

Glycemic Index Diabetes Diet

Blood Glucose Response Curves

The glycemic index or glycaemic index is a measure of how the body reacts to dietary carbohydrates.  Carbohydrates that increase blood glucose quickly have a high glycemic index and they are called high GI foods.  Carbohydrates that break down slowly and produce a gradual rise in blood glucose are considered low GI foods.

The glycemic index was developed by Dr. D.J. Jenkins and his associates at the University of Toronto in an effort to find better diets for patients with diabetes.[1,2]  The glycemic index of a food is calculated based on the area under the two hour blood glucose response curve after the ingestion of a specific weight of carbohydrate (usually 50 grams). To obtain the GI, the area under the curve of the test food is divided by the area of the standard (glucose) and multiplied by 100.  An average GI value for a food may be calculated from data collected from several human subjects.

Diabetes is a metabolic disease that elevates the level of blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because the cells of the body do not respond to the insulin that is produced.  Low GI foods help diabetics maintain better control of their blood sugar levels by reducing the rate at which sugars are absorbed by the body.

The difference between high GI and low GI carbohydrates is due to their chemical structure. Glucose, which is a simple sugar (high GI), is absorbed very rapidly and causes large increases in the blood sugar level.  Complex carbohydrates (low GI), on the other hand, need to be hydrolyzed before they can be converted into simpler carbohydrates that can be assimilated by the body.  Some of the complex carbohydrates are metabolized by the intestinal microflora into short chain fatty acids which do not elicit a glycemic response at all.  Thus, even with the same amount of total carbohydrate, a low GI meal produces fewer sugars that can increase the blood glucose level.

Learn more about carbohydrates

[1] Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Taylor RH, et al. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:362–6.
[2] Foster-Powell K, Holt SH, Brand-Miller JC. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:5–56.

Health Benefits of Virgin Coconut Oil

Virgin coconut oil is sometimes described as having incredible and near-miraculous health benefits as a nutritional supplement.  Some of these exaggerated claims are made by manufacturers or by websites that sell the coconut oil which is clearly a conflict of interest.  Does coconut oil have any real benefits for health?

Coconut oil is extracted from the meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm.  There are several methods for extracting the oil and they produce oils with different characteristics.  In the traditional method, the coconut kernel is shredded, mixed with a little water, and then squeezed to extract an emulsion called coconut cream or coconut milk.  The coconut milk is then allowed to separate naturally, and the oil rises to the surface.  In the dry process, shredded coconut is dried in the sun or in an oven and the oil is extracted by pressing.  The dried coconut kernel is called “copra”, and coconut oil is sometimes called copra oil.  Virgin coconut oil is defined as coconut oil obtained by mechanical or natural means with or without the application of heat, which does not lead to alteration of the oil.  Coconut oil prepared by cold pressing preserves polyphenols and other biologically active components that may be degraded by heat.

Coconut oil is used in foods, medicines, cosmetics, and industrial applications.  In some Asian countries, coconut oil is used for cooking and frying, and coconut milk is used as an ingredient in curry recipes.  Coconut oil is resistant to rancidity and its use increased as a replacement for hydrogenated fats when manufacturers were required to report trans fats in nutrition labels.

Chemically, coconut oil is a mixture of triglycerides (compounds made of glycerol and fatty acids) with carbon chains of 8 to 18 atoms.  Over ninety percent of the fatty acids in coconut oil are saturated, which means that they cannot oxidize and become rancid.  Approximately 60% of coconut oil consists of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) with fatty acids of 6 to 12 carbon atoms.  The only unsaturated fatty acids in coconut oil are oleic acid and linoleic acid which comprise only 8 percent of the total fatty acids. The typical fatty acid composition of coconut oil is given in the following table.

Caprylic Acid (C8:0)      8%
Capric Acid (C10:0)       6%
Lauric Acid (C12:0)     47%
Myristic Acid (C14:0)  18%
Palmitic Acid (C16:0)     9%
Stearic Acid (C18:0)       3%
Oleic Acid (C18:1)            6%
Linoleic Acid (C18:2)      2%

The health claims for coconut oil are based on the properties of some of the fatty acid components.  Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly from the gastrointestinal system and consumption of MCTs has been shown to increase energy expenditure and lead to greater losses of the adipose tissue in animals and humans.[1]  Lauric acid is also found in human milk (6.2% of total fat) and it has antibacterial and antiviral activity[2,3].

Something that is less frequently mentioned about coconut oil is that its high content of myristic acid increases cholesterol strongly and the palmitic acid also increases cholesterol.[4,5]  Even though coconut oil itself does not contain cholesterol because it is a vegetable product, its fatty acids produce a significant cholesterolemic response in the body.

One tablespoon of coconut oil (about 14 grams) provides 13.2 grams of saturated fat which is 65% of the Recommended Daily Allowance.  This makes it difficult to add other sources of healthier dietary fats without exceeding the saturated fat allowance.  Unfortunately, it is not possible to separate the fatty acids with potential beneficial effects from the ones that increase cholesterol.

Coconut oil may not be a good dietary fat, but when used as a skin moisturizer, it is as effective and safe as mineral oil.[6]  In addition, applied topically as a cream or lotion, coconut oil has antimicrobial properties against yeast infections such as Candida[7], and antifungal properties against Trichophyton[8] which is the fungus that causes tinea fungal infections like ringworm, athlete’s foot and jock itch.  The antifungal properties of coconut oil may be due to its content of medium chain fatty acids such as capric acid.[9]

Learn more about the effect of dietary fats on Cholesterol

Learn more about Fats

[1] M-P. St-Onge, P.J.H. Jones, “Greater rise in fat oxidation with medium-chain triglyceride consumption relative to long-chain triglyceride is associated with lower initial body weight and greater loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue”, International Journal of Obesity 27: 1565–1571 (2003).

[2] Hornung B, Amtmann E, Sauer G., “Lauric acid inhibits the maturation of vesicular stomatitis virus”, J Gen Virol. 1994 Feb;75 (Pt 2):353-61.  PMID: 8113756

[3] Nakatsuji T, Kao MC, Fang JY, Zouboulis CC, Zhang L, Gallo RL, Huang CM., “Antimicrobial property of lauric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: its therapeutic potential for inflammatory acne vulgaris”, J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Oct;129(10):2480-8. Epub 2009 Apr 23.  PMID: 19387482

[4] Hegsted DM, McGandy RB, Myers ML, Stare FJ, Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man. Am J Clin Nutr. 1965 Nov; 17(5):281-95.

[5] Martijti B Katan, Peter L Zock, and Ronald P Mensink, Effects of fats and fatty acids on blood lipids in humans: an overview, Am J Cli. Nutr., 1994;60(suppl):1017S-1022S.

[6] Agero AL, Verallo-Rowell VM (September 2004). “A randomized double-blind controlled trial comparing extra virgin coconut oil with mineral oil as a moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis”. Dermatitis 15 (3): 109–16. PMID 15724344.

[7] Ogbolu DO, Oni AA, Daini OA, Oloko AP., In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria, J Med Food. 2007 Jun;10(2):384-7.

[8] Garg AP, Müller J., Inhibition of growth of dermatophytes by Indian hair oils, Mycoses. 1992 Nov-Dec;35(11-12):363-9.

[9] Chadeganipour M, Haims A., Antifungal activities of pelargonic and capric acid on Microsporum gypseum, Mycoses. 2001 May;44(3-4):109-12.