Category Archives: nutrition

Health Benefits of Virgin Coconut Oil


Virgin coconut oil is sometimes described as having incredible and near-miraculous health benefits as a nutritional supplement.  Some of these exaggerated claims are made by manufacturers or by websites that sell the coconut oil which is clearly a conflict of interest.  Does coconut oil have any real benefits for health?

Coconut oil is extracted from the meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm.  There are several methods for extracting the oil and they produce oils with different characteristics.  In the traditional method, the coconut kernel is shredded, mixed with a little water, and then squeezed to extract an emulsion called coconut cream or coconut milk.  The coconut milk is then allowed to separate naturally, and the oil rises to the surface.  In the dry process, shredded coconut is dried in the sun or in an oven and the oil is extracted by pressing.  The dried coconut kernel is called “copra”, and coconut oil is sometimes called copra oil.  Virgin coconut oil is defined as coconut oil obtained by mechanical or natural means with or without the application of heat, which does not lead to alteration of the oil.  Coconut oil prepared by cold pressing preserves polyphenols and other biologically active components that may be degraded by heat.

Coconut oil is used in foods, medicines, cosmetics, and industrial applications.  In some Asian countries, coconut oil is used for cooking and frying, and coconut milk is used as an ingredient in curry recipes.  Coconut oil is resistant to rancidity and its use increased as a replacement for hydrogenated fats when manufacturers were required to report trans fats in nutrition labels.

Chemically, coconut oil is a mixture of triglycerides (compounds made of glycerol and fatty acids) with carbon chains of 8 to 18 atoms.  Over ninety percent of the fatty acids in coconut oil are saturated, which means that they cannot oxidize and become rancid.  Approximately 60% of coconut oil consists of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) with fatty acids of 6 to 12 carbon atoms.  The only unsaturated fatty acids in coconut oil are oleic acid and linoleic acid which comprise only 8 percent of the total fatty acids. The typical fatty acid composition of coconut oil is given in the following table.

Caprylic Acid (C8:0)      8%
Capric Acid (C10:0)       6%
Lauric Acid (C12:0)     47%
Myristic Acid (C14:0)  18%
Palmitic Acid (C16:0)     9%
Stearic Acid (C18:0)       3%
Oleic Acid (C18:1)            6%
Linoleic Acid (C18:2)      2%

The health claims for coconut oil are based on the properties of some of the fatty acid components.  Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly from the gastrointestinal system and consumption of MCTs has been shown to increase energy expenditure and lead to greater losses of the adipose tissue in animals and humans.[1]  Lauric acid is also found in human milk (6.2% of total fat) and it has antibacterial and antiviral activity[2,3].

Something that is less frequently mentioned about coconut oil is that its high content of myristic acid increases cholesterol strongly and the palmitic acid also increases cholesterol.[4,5]  Even though coconut oil itself does not contain cholesterol because it is a vegetable product, its fatty acids produce a significant cholesterolemic response in the body.

One tablespoon of coconut oil (about 14 grams) provides 13.2 grams of saturated fat which is 65% of the Recommended Daily Allowance.  This makes it difficult to add other sources of healthier dietary fats without exceeding the saturated fat allowance.  Unfortunately, it is not possible to separate the fatty acids with potential beneficial effects from the ones that increase cholesterol.

Coconut oil may not be a good dietary fat, but when used as a skin moisturizer, it is as effective and safe as mineral oil.[6]  In addition, applied topically as a cream or lotion, coconut oil has antimicrobial properties against yeast infections such as Candida[7], and antifungal properties against Trichophyton[8] which is the fungus that causes tinea fungal infections like ringworm, athlete’s foot and jock itch.  The antifungal properties of coconut oil may be due to its content of medium chain fatty acids such as capric acid.[9]

Learn more about the effect of dietary fats on Cholesterol

Learn more about Fats


[1] M-P. St-Onge, P.J.H. Jones, “Greater rise in fat oxidation with medium-chain triglyceride consumption relative to long-chain triglyceride is associated with lower initial body weight and greater loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue”, International Journal of Obesity 27: 1565–1571 (2003).

[2] Hornung B, Amtmann E, Sauer G., “Lauric acid inhibits the maturation of vesicular stomatitis virus”, J Gen Virol. 1994 Feb;75 (Pt 2):353-61.  PMID: 8113756

[3] Nakatsuji T, Kao MC, Fang JY, Zouboulis CC, Zhang L, Gallo RL, Huang CM., “Antimicrobial property of lauric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: its therapeutic potential for inflammatory acne vulgaris”, J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Oct;129(10):2480-8. Epub 2009 Apr 23.  PMID: 19387482

[4] Hegsted DM, McGandy RB, Myers ML, Stare FJ, Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man. Am J Clin Nutr. 1965 Nov; 17(5):281-95.

[5] Martijti B Katan, Peter L Zock, and Ronald P Mensink, Effects of fats and fatty acids on blood lipids in humans: an overview, Am J Cli. Nutr., 1994;60(suppl):1017S-1022S.

[6] Agero AL, Verallo-Rowell VM (September 2004). “A randomized double-blind controlled trial comparing extra virgin coconut oil with mineral oil as a moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis”. Dermatitis 15 (3): 109–16. PMID 15724344.

[7] Ogbolu DO, Oni AA, Daini OA, Oloko AP., In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria, J Med Food. 2007 Jun;10(2):384-7.

[8] Garg AP, Müller J., Inhibition of growth of dermatophytes by Indian hair oils, Mycoses. 1992 Nov-Dec;35(11-12):363-9.

[9] Chadeganipour M, Haims A., Antifungal activities of pelargonic and capric acid on Microsporum gypseum, Mycoses. 2001 May;44(3-4):109-12.

Breakfast Cereals are Highly Processed Foods

2-methylnaphtalene in your cereal

Kellogg’s Froot Loops cereal is a very popular breakfast food that is actively marketed to children in cartoon television commercials.  For some time, it has been known that artificial food dyes from these colorful cereals can impair the performance of hyperactive children.[1]  Recently, Kellogg recalled 28 million boxes of Froot Loops, Apple Jacks, Corn Pops and Honey Smacks cereals because of chemical contamination by 2-methylnaphthalene.  2-Methylnaphthalene is a chemical derivative of naphthalene which is a primary ingredient of mothballs.

The cereals were recalled after consumers reported a strange taste and odor, and some complained of nausea and diarrhea.  Kellogg hired some experts who said that there was “no harmful material” in the products.  The Food and Drug Administration has no scientific data on the impact of 2-methylnaphtalene on human health, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) also lacks the basic health data, even though the agency has been seeking that information from the chemical industry for 16 years.

The EPA information for 2-methylnaphthalene indicates that the substance causes pulmonary alveolar proteinosis which is characterized by an accumulation of phospholipids in the alveolar lumens and white protuberant nodules in the lungs. The best guess that the EPA can make is that the oral Reference Dose (RfD) of a daily exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime is 0.004 mg/kg-day.[2]

Breakfast cereals are very convenient for busy parents, but there is a price to pay.  The dyes and the high sugar content do not provide the best nutrition for our children.  There are better alternatives to the highly processed foods, but you have to read labels carefully.

[1] Swanson JM, Kinsbourne M., Food dyes impair performance of hyperactive children on a laboratory learning test, Science. 1980 Mar 28;207(4438):1485-7.  PMID: 7361102

[2] 2-Methylnaphthalene (CASRN 91-57-6) [link]

Why ice cream makes you fat

For dessert, a friend brought a box of four ice cream sandwiches from Trader Joe’s made with vanilla ice cream between chocolate chip cookies and rolled in mini chocolate chips.  The sandwiches are actually delicious, but if you are used to low glycemic foods, you feel your blood sugar spike for about two hours after eating one of these sandwiches.  The portion does not look too big.  Each sandwich is about 3 inches in diameter and 1 inch thick, but it is packed with 440 calories.

The nutrition label says that each sandwich has 21 grams of fat, including 12 grams of saturated fat which is 60% of the daily value.  In other words, this little ice cream morsel has more than half of the saturated fat that you should eat in a whole day.  The amount of carbohydrate is also quite high, 60 grams of carbohydrate, of which 42 grams are sugars.  This is more sugar than in a 12 oz (355 ml) can of Coca Cola.

Ice cream is high in fat and high in sugar.  It takes one hour of strenuous exercise to burn off 400 calories, and it is a sure bet that you are not going to go jogging after eating an ice cream sandwich with this much sugar.  You are going to feel sleepy, you are going to sit down on the couch, and your body is going to store the sugar as fat.

You could limit your calories by cutting a sandwich into quarters with 110 calories each, but who has the discipline to stop after eating four tiny bites?  It is too much hassle to put the remainder in a container and back in the freezer, and it would be a waste to let the ice cream melt.  So, you have to eat it all before it melts.  Right?

These are the reasons why ice cream makes you fat:

  • High fat
  • High sugar
  • Large portions
  • Lack of exercise
  • Lack of discipline

Learn how to lose weight

Maltodextrin, Soluble Corn Fiber and Resistant Starch

Glucose

Glucose is a simple sugar that is a constituent of many different types of complex carbohydrates in its ring structural form.  Polymers of glucose, like cellulose, are completely insoluble and indigestible.  Other polymers, such as starch, are broken down by the enzyme amylase in saliva, and the glucose can then be burned for energy by the body.  There are other polymers of glucose, classified as soluble fiber, that are indigestible, but can be broken down by intestinal bacteria to produce short-chain fatty acids.[1]

Insoluble fiber just provides bulk, whereas soluble fiber serves important nutritional functions, such as lowering cholesterol by binding to bile secretions and facilitating their excretion in the feces.  Soluble fiber also promotes growth of intestinal probiotic bacteria that produce some vitamins and help to maintain regularity.  Insoluble fiber has no calories, and soluble fiber has about half of the calories of simple carbohydrates because it is not completely digested by colonic bacteria.[2]

Many food fillers are derivatives of starch.  Maltodextrin is a partially hydrolyzed starch frequently used as a bulking agent in sugar substitutes, but it is metabolized like a sugar.  Manufacturers have started using resistant starch and soluble fiber derived from corn as filling agents in an attempt to produce lower calorie products.  Resistant starch  is starch that is not digested in the small intestine and is considered a different type of dietary fiber, as it can deliver some of the bulking benefits of insoluble fiber and some of the benefits of soluble fiber.

Learn more about carbohydrates

[1] Brighenti, Furio et al. “Colonic fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates contributes to the second-meal effect.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83.4 (2006): 817-822.
[2] Englyst, Klaus and Englyst, Hans. “Carbohydrate Bioavailability.” British Journal of Nutrition 94 (2005): 1-11.

Ginkgo Biloba does not improve brain function

Ginkgo biloba

The leaf of the maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba, has been used as herbal medicine in China since the fifteenth century. The leaves were traditionally used for benefiting the brain and for treatment of lung disorders. In modern times, Ginkgo biloba is a popular supplement that is widely used for its potential effects on memory and cognition. A standardized extract is widely prescribed for the treatment of a range of conditions including memory and concentration problems, confusion, depression, anxiety, dizziness, tinnitus and headache.

The mechanism of action of Ginkgo is supposed to be due to components that increase blood supply by dilating blood vessels, reducing blood viscosity, and reducing free radicals, but recent studies show that the purported benefits of ginkgo for the brain are exaggerated and cannot be demonstrated scientifically. One study concludes that Ginkgo biloba appears to be safe in use with no excess side effects compared with placebo, but the evidence that Ginkgo has predictable and clinically significant benefit for people with dementia or cognitive impairment is inconsistent and unconvincing.[1] A second study shows that Ginkgo biloba taken at a dose of 120 mg twice a day was not effective in reducing either the overall incidence rate of dementia or Alzheimer disease incidence in elderly individuals with normal cognition or those with mild cognitive impairment.[2]

The good news is that Ginkgo is not harmful. The bad news is that many people have been wasting their money on an ineffective supplement.

The leaves of Ginkgo biloba trees turn bright yellow in the autumn. The trees are popular ornamental trees which are survivors from the days of the dinosaurs.

Here are some puzzles to exercise your mind

[1] Birks J, Grimley Evans J., Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD003120.

[2] DeKosky ST, Williamson JD, Fitzpatrick AL, et al., Ginkgo biloba for prevention of dementia: a randomized controlled trial, JAMA. 2008 Nov 19;300(19):2253-62.

How to Age Gracefully


Antonio Zamora – Age 67

A large percentage of people who are retired or close to retirement take medications for diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, digestive problems, and other chronic conditions that have developed over their lifetime.  If you listen to the drug commercials during the national evening news, this is normal, but it should not be.  Many of the diseases that we associate with old age are the result of bad diet, exposure to harmful chemicals, and lack of exercise.

Optimum Nutrition
Your diet should include enough protein and essential fatty acids to maintain a normal weight.  The large number of overweight people all around us distorts our notion of what is a normal weight.  Use this Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculator to determine whether your weight is in the normal range.

BMI Calculator

Learn about Optimum Nutrition

Exercise
You should engage in 30 minutes of vigorous exercise at least three to four times per week.  Exercise improves your coordination and your muscle strength.  Exercise also keeps you lungs and circulatory system in good working condition.  But be careful.  Avoid getting injured from strenuous or high-impact exercises.

Keep Active Socially and Mentally
As you age, you will need to maintain a good social network.  Many people who live to a ripe old age become depressed when they feel isolated as their friends and relatives start dying.  You can keep engaged by volunteering to teach young people, or by participating in social organizations that make you feel useful.

Try to stay healthy
The two most common causes of death are heart disease and cancer.  If you can avoid these two dangers, you have a good chance of living a long life.  Many cardiovascular diseases can be avoided by maintaining a normal weight and exercising regularly.  The risk of cancer can be reduced by avoiding substances that damage your cellular DNA and cause tumors, such as the chemicals in tobacco.

Learn How Others Do It!
One of the best ways to learn how to age gracefully is to constantly explore the concept with those who are indeed aging gracefully. You can always read about famous people and celebrities, but remember that with vast wealth comes the ability to hire all sorts of people to keep you looking and feeling fabulous.
Read about the oldest person alive and see what helps “normal” people age gracefully.

Learn how to reduce cancer risks through diet and lifestyle changes

How to lower blood cholesterol naturally


According to the National Center for Health Statistics, 106.7 million Americans age 20 and older have total blood cholesterol levels of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) and higher. That is 35% of the population of the United States! The epidemic of high cholesterol is mainly due to the fats used in packaged and commercial foods. Cholesterol can be lowered by avoiding hydrogenated fats and eating polyunsaturated fats found in fish, walnuts, and sunflower seeds. Unfortunately, essential fatty acids turn rancid rapidly, and manufacturers avoid them to prevent packaged foods from spoiling while they sit in supermarket shelves.

The worst fats for your health are hydrogenated fats because they increase Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), the “bad” cholesterol, and they decrease the High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), the “good” cholesterol. Saturated fats like those found in coconut oil and palm kernel oil increase cholesterol levels powerfully, but these are the fats that are used by manufacturers because they do not get stale.

The chart above shows the effects of individual dietary fatty acids on Total Serum Cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol when 1% of the energy from carbohydrates in the diet is replaced by 1% of energy of the specific fatty acids. The chart shows cholesterol increases from lauric acid (C12:0), myristic acid (C14:0), and palmitic acid (C16:0) which are found in coconut oil, palm oil, and butter. Elaidic acid (trans-C18:1), which is present in hydrogenated fats, is the worst because it increases LDL and decreases HDL. The saturated fatty acid stearic acid (C18:0), the monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1), and the polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2) decrease LDL and increase HDL to various degrees.[1] Here are some steps to lower cholesterol:

  • Avoid all hydrogenated fats (they are very common in commercial fried foods and baked goods)
  • Reduce sources of saturated fats (butter, coconut oil, palm oil, fat from meats, chicken skin)
  • Increase consumption of polyunsaturated fats (fish oil, walnut oil, flax seed oil, grape seed oil)
  • Add soluble fiber to your diet (oatmeal, legumes)

Unfortunately, many of the oils available commercially are highly processed. The best thing is not to eat them. Meet your essential fatty acid requirements by eating foods that have the oils, e.g., fish, walnuts, sunflower seeds, etc. Olive oil does not lower cholesterol; it is basically neutral. The reason why olive oil receives a lot of positive promotion is because it is used in the Mediterranean diet, and the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases, although this is not necessarily because of the oil.

The hardest part in normalizing your cholesterol will be avoiding the vast number of commercial foods that have hydrogenated fats and saturated fats. They include shortening, margarine, butter flavor popcorn, hash browns, french fries, biscuits, baked apple pies, chocolate chip cookies, taco shells, and the list goes on and on. Pay close attention to the food labels.

Learn how to lower your cholesterol

[1] Martijti B Katan, Peter L Zock, and Ronald P Mensink, Effects of fats and fatty acids on blood lipids in humans: an overview, Am J Cli. Nutr., 1994;60(suppl):1017S-1022S.

Gout, Cancer and urinary alkalinization

 
Mechanism of apoptosis and a toe with gout

When body fluids, such as urine, become very acid, solids dissolved in the fluids crystallize within the body and can cause gout and create tophi in the cooler parts of the body. The pain of uric acid deposits from gout can be excruciating.  The conventional treatment for gout consists of avoiding alcohol, foods high in purines, and some medications like niacin.  Many of the prescription medicines used to treat gout have undesirable side effects.

As if the suffering from gout were not bad enough, a study published in 2009 linked the occurrence of gout to increased incidence of cancer and concluded that “hyperuricemia may be an early manifestation of the carcinogenic process”.[1]  The study found that gout patients had increased incidence of all types of cancer, including cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, colon, liver and biliary tract, pancreas, lung, skin (melanoma and nonmelanoma), endometrium and kidney, as well as of malignant melanoma.

Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) is frequently used as a home remedy for gout. Sodium bicarbonate works by alkalizing body fluids to increase the solubility of uric acid and permit its elimination through the urine.  It is possible that this alternative medicine treatment for gout could also reduce the risk of cancer.

In 2007, researchers identified cellular signaling pathways that become active under alkaline conditions by removing amide functional groups from key cellular proteins (Bcl-xL) thus promoting the death of cancerous cells through apoptosis.[2]  German biochemist Otto Warburg initially proposed in 1966 that abnormal energy metabolism caused cancer. He showed that tumors have an acidic extracellular environment, and suggested that a switch from oxidative respiration to glycolysis, which produces lactic acid, starts the cell transformation toward cancer. Warburg’s work stimulated interest in the possibility that there was some kind of link between pH and cancer.  The latest findings raise hope that inducing alkalinization may prove an effective strategy to treat a range of cancers.

Wouldn’t it be wonderful if cancer could be prevented simply by regularly drinking some baking soda dissolved in water to keep body fluids from becoming too acidic?

[1] Boffetta P, Nordenvall C, Nyrén O, Ye W., A prospective study of gout and cancer.
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2009 Apr;18(2):127-32, PMID: 19337060

[2] Gross L (2007) Manipulating Cellular pH Suggests Novel Anticancer Therapy. PLoS Biol 5(1): e10

Modern lifestyle promotes obesity


I just returned from a trip to Manhattan, New York.  The streets are packed with taxis, buses, and people walking.  Under the streets, you can hear the constant rumble of subway trains.  New Yorkers use public transportation and have to walk a lot more than other people in America.  Few New Yorkers seem to be excessively overweight.  Maybe this is a mistaken impression.  It is possible that New Yorkers who are overweight avoid going to Manhattan because then they would have to walk.

Over the last 20 years, Americans have become fatter.  Mississippi and Alabama lead the nation in the rates of obesity, but increased obesity is not only happening in the United States.  The obesity epidemic is engulfing the entire world.  Although obesity is a problem mainly in rich countries, the World Health Organization estimates that by 2010 the developing world will have caught up.  Overweight people now outnumber the undernourished.

Why is this happening?  The primary culprits are junk food and artificial foods, particularly sweetened soft drinks that provide only carbohydrate calories without any other nutrients, and hydrogenated fats that cannot be metabolized by the body.  Lack of exercise is a secondary reason.  Here is a list of some of the factors responsible for the increase in obesity.

  • We drive to the grocery store because otherwise we cannot carry the big load of groceries home.
  • We cannot walk to work or school because the distances are too great.
  • We are too busy commuting to have time to exercise, so we don’t exercise.
  • We drink too many sugary soft drinks with addictive ingredients like caffeine.
  • We eat too many foods that have hydrogenated fats.
  • Many staples are over-processed and refined so that they have less fiber and fewer nutrients.
  • Food is glorified as a social celebration.  TV programs like the Food Channel describe food preparation without regard for its nutritional content.  Add more butter…, Deep fry it…, Add a cup of sugar…, etc.
  • We snack too much and expect that every meal should have dessert.
  • We eat too much fast food that is usually too greasy.
  • We use food as celebration.  If you have a birthday, how do you celebrate?  You have to eat cake!

Food consumption is promoted very agressively.  Manufacturers cannot make much money from people who fast or eat small meals.  Calorie Restriction and moderate eating are not good for business.

Learn how to lose weight

Dreaming about guitars and hamburgers

Last night, I had a dream that my friend was going to participate in a musical competition with his guitar.  There were other guys dressed in western clothes with guitars who were also going to be in the contest.

My friend invited me to his house.  It was one of those stucco houses with a porch along the whole front of the house that were built during the 1950’s.  My friend’s family had gathered around a folding table on the porch where there was a tray of nicely grilled hamburgers, loaves of white bread, and dishes with onions, tomatoes, lettuce, and pickles.  I thought that it was curious that they were using sliced bread instead of buns.  As I went to the table to assemble a succulent juicy hamburger with mustard, I woke up feeling very hungry.

Two days ago, I was playing the guitar, and this is probably why the guitars got into my dream.  I also have been eating chicken for two weeks on a restricted calorie diet.  I miss a good burger.  I think I need to change my menu for a few days.  There is a McDonald’s restaurant across the street.  Their Angus Third Pounder Deluxe looks tempting.  The ingredients are[1]:

Angus Deluxe:
Angus Beef Patty, Premium Bun, Pasteurized Process American Cheese, Tomato Slice, Mayonnaise Dressing, Red Onions, Crinkle Cut Pickle Slices, Leaf Lettuce, and Mustard.

One thing that makes me hesitate about this big burger is that it has 760 Calories and 41 grams of fat, including 2 grams of trans fats.  I thought that the trans fats came from shortening used in the bread or the mayonnaise dressing, but I was wrong.  Unlike the Regular Buns which may contain partially hydrogenated soybean oil, the Premium Bun of the Angus burger does not contain trans fats, but the Angus Beef Patty is not like the 100% Beef Patty seasoned with salt and pepper used in most of McDonald’s sandwiches.  It actually contains a lot of ingredients, including partially hydrogenated oils.  Here are the ingredients of the Angus Beef Patty[1]:

Angus Beef Patty:
100% Angus beef. Prepared with Grill Seasoning (salt, black pepper) and Angus Burger Seasoning: Salt, sugar, dextrose, onion powder, maltodextrin, natural butter flavor (dairy source), autolyzed yeast extract, spices, garlic powder, vegetable protein (hydrolyzed corn, soy and wheat), natural (animal, plant and botanical source) and artificial flavors, dried beef broth, sunflower oil, caramel color, partially hydrogenated cottonseed and soybean oil, gum arabic, soy sauce solids (wheat, soybean, salt, maltodextrin, caramel color), palm oil, worcestershire sauce powder [distilled vinegar, molasses, corn syrup, salt, caramel color, garlic powder, sugar, spices, tamarind, natural flavor (fruit source)], beef fat, annatto and turmeric (color), calcium silicate and soybean oil (prevent caking).

If McDonald’s used the premium bun with the 100% beef patties, I could have a hamburger without added trans fats, but alas, that is not the case.  I remember the wonderful hamburgers that I used to eat in a diner during my sophomore year in college.  A large beef patty on a toasted bun with lettuce, onion, tomato, pickle, and a good dab of yellow mustard. No artificial ingredients.  Those were the good old days.


Learn about Trans Fats

Download some songs and samples of string instruments

[1] McDonald’s USA Ingredients